Fractionation: A term used when the total dose of radiation is divided into smaller doses,
generally given over a period of days to give normal healthy cells time to heal.
Gamma rays: A type of radiation of shorter wavelength and higher energy than kilovoltage
X-rays used for diagnosis characterized by the fact it was generated by a radioactive isotope.
Hormone Therapy: The use of hormones (given as drugs) to treat some kinds of cancer.
Hypofractionation: Small doses of radiation delivered during multiple treatment sessions
that extend over several days. Hypofractionation is necessary when the full dose cannot be confined to the target area; use
of smaller doses helps to minimize the damage to the tissue around the target, and multiple days allows it to recover from
the radiation dose it receives.
IGRT: Image-guided radiation therapy is a technology advancement that enables the use
of frequent imaging during a course of radiation therapy to support precision and accuracy in areas prone to movement, such
as lungs and prostate gland, as well as for tumors located close to critical organs and tissues.
Intensity-modulated radiation therapy is an advanced mode of radiotherapy that allows computer-controlled radiation intensity
to be changed (modulated) during treatment to support three-dimensional treatment precision and accuracy.
A point in space defined by the intersection of all the machine-based axis of rotation where radiation is directed in a highly
reproducible and accurate way. The isocenter remains constant and therefore is easily quality-assured on a routine basis.
A single isocenter consists of many simultaneously delivered beams of radiation.
Linear Accelerator: A machine that is used in radiation treatment that may also be called
a linac. It uses high energy x-rays to treat cancer.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI or MR): MRI provides three-dimensional, or multiplanar,
views of an internal organ or structure. MRI offers increased-contrast resolution, enabling better visualization of soft tissues
such as the brain and spinal cord.
Metastasis: This is when cancer cells in one place
(the breast, for example) spread to other parts of the body such as the liver, bones, lungs or brain.
Collimator (MLC): A device within a linear accelerator made up of tungsten leaves that can move independently to
provide conformal shaping of radiation beams.
Obs or Review Clinic: The weekly visit with the doctor or nurse while you are receiving
Oncologist: A physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment
Orthovoltage: A machine used in radiation treatment to treat cancers that
are on the surface, or close to the surface, of your body.
Palliative Care: The goal of palliative care is to improve the quality of life for people
with cancer and their families.
Radiation Treatment (or therapy): This is the use of radiation to destroy cancer cells.
The most common kinds of radiation used are high energy X-rays, gamma rays and electrons.
Radiosurgery is the delivery of a single high dose of radiation to a target in a single session by using multiple, focused,
finely collimated radiation beams with surgical precision.
Radiotherapy or Radiation Therapy:
The use of high-energy radiation from X-rays, gamma rays, neutrons and other sources to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors.
Red Blood Cells: The cells in the blood that carry oxygen to different parts of the body.
SBRT: Stereotactic body radiation therapy is a highly specialized form of external beam
radiation therapy combining advanced technology and expert technique. In SBRT, exact localization of tumors enables delivery
of precisely focused radiation at higher potency doses and over fewer treatments than conventional radiation therapy, to maximize
achievable outcomes with minimal collateral damage.
Simulation (or sim): The initial
planning of the radiation treatment that is done on a similar machine to the radiation machine.
The use of operating procedures to correct deformities, repair injuries, or remove certain diseased tissues.
X-ray: A form of electromagnetic radiation that creates images as x-ray particles pass
through the body.